The purpose of this study is to evaluate the haematological explorations and blood disorders in the general pediatric department of the specialized health establishment mother and child) of Tlemcen. The sample size is 418, and data were collected using a questionnaire. The hemogram (complete blood count) was the most hematological exam realized (for 99% of patients). This study revealed a high prevalence of anemia especially in children of preschool age, and among these anemia, the hypochromic microcytic anemia is the most represented with a rate of 28%, it is mainly related to iron deficiency (found in 43% of patients), iron deficiency with or without anemia . The study also revealed the low prevalence of childhood leukemia. The prescription and the realization of complementary examinations to the hemogram should better clarify the anomalies and hematologic diseases.