Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination

Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
Open Access

ISSN: 2157-7560



An Assessment of Wastage Multiplier Factor (WMF) and Percent Wastage of Vaccines during Routine Immunization Under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), Government of India (GOI)

Ajit Mukherjee, Vinita Das, Aarti Srivastava, Abhilasha Gupta, Anupma Upadhyay, Sushma Pandey, Devashish Ganguly, Joydev Mukherji, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Guruprasad Pednekar, Shantaram Surme, Reeta Rasaily and Anju Sinha

At the inception of the UIP, the wastage and the WMF were built into the programme based on the guidelines of WHO/UNICEF. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) conducted a study through its network of five Human Reproductive Research Centres (HRRCs) in 10 districts of four states of India to estimate the wastage and the wastage multiplier factor for the six vaccines currently being used under the UIP, GOI. Objectives: (i) To determine the amount of wastage of vaccines being used under UIP, (ii) To determine the reasons of wastage of vaccine, and (iii) To suggest methods for reducing the wastage of vaccine. Methods: The study was conducted through the network of five HRRCs in ten districts located in four states of India. Wastage at the point of administration of vaccine was estimated. Results and conclusion: WMF and % wastage were calculated separately for each of the six vaccines for each district. The estimated % wastage and its range, the estimated WMF and its range for DPT, DT, TT, OPV, BCG and Measles was respectively 38.9 (12.8-69.7), 1.64 (1.15-3.31); 39.1 (27.3-61.4), 1.64 (1.38-2.59); 48.0 (20.9-67.1), 1.92 (1.26-3.04); 52.7 (22.1-75.7), 2.12 (1.28-4.12); 49.3 (30.3-70.2), 1.97 (1.43-3.36); 38.7 (20.8-50.1), 1.39 (1.26- 2.00). The estimated % wastage of five of the six vaccines namely, DPT, DT, TT, OPV and Measles was found to be significantly higher than what is assumed in the UIP (p<0.0001). Among all the other reasons for wastage of vaccines, “Residual vaccine left in the vial” was the most frequently reported reason for wastage of vaccines. Therefore, vials of variable size with house to house campaign were recommended to minimize wastage of vaccines in UIP.